Here are the remaining words that you need to know for OCR GCSE Latin (A402). They should be learned in tandem with the earlier page for Foundation Tier, where you will find more explanation about the lay-out of the tables. If necessary you can also look back over the Common Entrance pages: nearly all the words there are also in the GCSE syllabus!

Even with this final group of the 'hardest' words you are required to know for GCSE, you will certainly find a few that you know already! Once again, a little more information has often been included along with the VDB prompts; future pages now under construction are intended to offer help with translation practice in the tougher language constructions you are likely to meet: Indirect Statement, Result Clauses and so on.

Thank you for sticking with us this far, and I hope that this site will continue to be useful for you - either directly for exams, or for 'old time's sake' in the future! Please continue to check back and see what else has been added.

Quick Jump LinksTo jump quickly to a particular vocab table, click on the link below:

NOUNS 1st decl: click #nouns1stdecl

NOUNS 2nd masc: click #nouns2ndmasc

NOUNS 2nd neuter: click #nouns2ndneut

NOUNS 3rd decl: click #nouns3rddecl

NOUNS 4th decl: click #nouns4thdecl

ADJECTIVES: click #adjectives

PRONOUNS: click #pronouns

PREPOSITIONS: click #prepositions

ADVERBS: click #adverbs

CONJUNCTIONS: click #conjunctions

VERBS 1st conj: click #verbs1stconj

VERBS 2nd conj: click #verbs2ndconj

VERBS 3rd conj: click #verbs3rdconj

VERBS mixed conj: click #verbsmixed

VERBS 4th conj: click #verbs4thconj

VERBS irregular: click #verbsirreg

DEPONENT VERBS: click #deponentverbs

SEMI-DEPONENT VERBS: click #semidepverbs

 

 

 

NOUNS

1st Declension -A, -AE  (feminine)

LATIN

ENGLISH

DERIVATIVE

VDB PROMPT

POENA PUNISHMENT, PENALTY penalty

for the likeliest usage of this noun, see the entry for 'poenas do' in the verb table.

NOUNS

2nd Declension -US, -I (masculine)

CAPTIVUS PRISONER captive, captivate nice to have a really obvious one near the start: should give you a bit of extra confidence!
INIMICUS ENEMY enemy this really is where the English word comes from! It literally means an 'un-friend' ('in-amicus'), and refers to someone who is a personal enemy as distinct from a 'hostis' - an enemy of the whole state.
MARITUS husband married this is so close to modern European words for husband that it shouldn't cause any trouble.
NOUNS

2nd Declension neuter -UM, -I

GAUDIUM JOY, PLEASURE gaudy, gay something 'gaudy' originally was  brightly-coloured & cheerful - designed to make you feel happy; these days it seems to be beginning to have the 'bad-sense' idea of 'tacky' associated with it, however. Which is rather similar to what has happened to its other derivative!
IMPERIUM POWER, EMPIRE, COMMAND imperial deriv.'s should be enough to give you this one. Connected of course to 'impero' and 'imperator'
REGNUM KINGDOM reign connected with 'rego' and 'rex/regina'; and explains why the English word has a 'g' in it 
NOUNS 3rd Declension, various stems and genders
LEGIO, legionis (f) LEGION legionary, legionnaire why is such an obviously 'masculine' idea a feminine noun? Two reasons: the grammatical ending '-io' in the 3rd decl. is used for fem. words; but also (more usefully) words that refer to 'groups' or numbers of things (collective nouns) tend to be feminine in Latin - hence, for example, urbs (also feminine are most abstract nouns, apart from those ending -or). These 'rules' apply mostly to the 3rd decl.
PES, pedis (m) FOOT pedal, pedestrian easy deriv.'s. Referring to the last entry, as it's neither a collective nor an abstract noun, pes is likely to be masc!
SANGUIS, sanguinis (m) BLOOD consanguinity, sanguine the French word 'sang' is derived; masc again since it is obviously something that you can touch! One old pupil used to create a gruesome mind-picture of prisoners who 'sang' while they were being executed in the arena...(got it from 'Quo Vadis', I suspect!) 
SCELUS, sceleris (n) CRIME ? an obvious connection can be made by thinking of a **skeleton**! This word is neuter by reason of its -us grammar ending: somewhat confusingly, 3rd decl. words in -us -oris or -us -eris are neuter, even abstract nouns! (compare virtus, -utis which is fem: a different stem). I'm sure you can think of the other most common neuter ending in the 3rd decl?
NOUNS

4th Declension -US, -US (masculine)

EXERCITUS ARMY exercise an army has to go on exercises to train up for battle; in fact this is connected with the verb 'exerceo' - I train. Sadly, the gender 'rules' outlined above break down for non-3rd decl. words - but will still probably explain why another common 4th decl. word (manus) is fem.
PORTUS HARBOUR port you will already be on your guard not to confuse this with 'porto' or 'porta' - now be even more careful to spot that it's 4th declension!
VULTUS FACE, EXPRESSION ? **vultures** (especially cartoon ones!) always seem to have particularly expressive faces....

 

 

ADJECTIVES

           1st/2nd Declension: -US -A -UM                

LATIN

ENGLISH

DERIVATIVE

VDB PROMPT

BENIGNUS KIND benign deriv.; connected with 'bene'
DIRUS DREADFUL dire deriv.; 'Dir oh dir!'
NONNULLI SOME, SEVERAL annul, nullify literally 'not none!' obviously tends to be used in the plural only.
PLENUS FULL plenty 'plenty-full'
PROXIMUS NEAREST, NEXT approximate. proxy an 'approximation' is making the nearest possible guess towards something. This is actually a sort of superlative connected with 'prope'
SCELESTUS WICKED, EVIL ? the sdjective connected with 'scelus': see above for prompts!
VERUS TRUE verify, very the original sense of the word 'very' comes from this: it is 'very' good - it is 'truly' good
ADJECTIVES  3rd Declension
  BREVIS -is -e SHORT brief, abbreviation deriv.'s should be enough; musicians are often confused as to why a semi-breve (let alone an actual breve!) is nowadays the longest note in written music!
DILIGENS, diligentis CAREFUL diligent so that's what 'diligent' means....!
INFELIX, infelicis UNLUCKY, UNHAPPY infelicitous negative version of 'felix'. Unhappy because of ill-fortune, rather than just naturally miserable!

 

 

PRONOUN

       indefinite  

LATIN

ENGLISH

DERIVATIVE

VDB PROMPT

QUIDAM quaedam quoddam

, A (CERTAIN)

?

this is an awkward one, both in its declension and its meaning. It declines (more or less) like 'qui quae quod' with '-dam' (unchangeable) attached as a suffix. Some cases of 'qui' are slightly altered, with a final 'm' changing to an 'n' - this should be familiar from the pronoun 'idem'. It is used to introduce a new character in a story: 'There lived in the same town a (certain) shepherd....'; sometimes the best English is produced by using just 'a/an'; you may need to experiment with 'some', 'one', ' a particular...' or even 'some...or other', if 'a certain...' doesn't sound right! It is unfortunately very common in Latin!

 

 

PREPOSITION

     (+ accusative)  

LATIN

ENGLISH

DERIVATIVE

VDB PROMPT

APUD AT THE HOUSE OF, WITH, AMONGST, IN THE WORKS OF ? this unusual preposition corresponds to the French word 'chez', and is used in the same way in Latin. It is surprisingly easy to remember! If not, try thinking of the Kwik-E-Mart (at the house of Apu......)

 

 

ADVERBS

 all indeclinable  

LATIN

ENGLISH

DERIVATIVE

VDB PROMPT

ANTEA

BEFORE(HAND), PREVIOUSLY

anterior

obviously connected with 'ante' and 'antequam'; all three of these, confusingly, in English can mean 'before'; this is the adverb, corresponding to 'postea', which you have learned already.

LIBENTER GLADLY, WILLINGLY ? it is often tempting to translate this as 'freely', given its similarity to 'liber'; the meaning is pretty close (but not recommended!) It is perhaps closer to the expression 'ad lib(itum)' - meaning 'at your pleasure' 
MAGIS MORE (GREATLY) magnify (from magnus) this is in fact the comparative adverb from 'magnopere'; all the degrees of comparison (adjective or adverb!) from magnus are irregular. A regional way of remembering it could be to inquire whether someone 'likes haggis magis than neeps' (possibly one of VDB's most cringeworthy efforts...!)
MULTO MUCH, A LOT multiply, etc. an adverb formed from 'multus' (there is also 'multum'); the equivalent of the modern Italian 'molto'
POSTRIDIE ON THE NEXT DAY posterior, postpone etc. closely connected of course to all the variations of 'post'. This one has a bit of 'dies' attached, and this is the clue to its actual meaning. 
PRIMO FIRST(LY) prime, primitive an adverb from 'primus' - there is also 'primum' (compare 'multo' above)
QUAM (+ a superlative) AS....AS POSSIBLE ? the top of the ladder as far as comparison goes! Easily the most common of these expressions is 'quam celerrime'. It's almost as if one were saying: celerrime - very quickly: quam celerrime - how very quickly (is that)! 
QUANDO? WHEN? Fr. quand apart from being very similar in French, this is exactly the same word in modern Italian (and Spanish!) Do not confuse it with 'ubi', which only means 'when' in the sense of a conjunction ('when we arrived, we saw our friends'); the adverbial/question meaning of ubi is of course 'where'.
SIMUL AT THE SAME TIME simultaneous the deriv. should solve any problems with this one
UNDE? WHERE ... FROM? ? 'where did you get those "unde's" from...??'

 

 

CONJUNCTIONS

       all indeclinable  

LATIN

ENGLISH

DERIVATIVE

VDB PROMPT

ENIM

FOR

?

think of this as a sort of 'compound' of 'nam' ('e-nim'). It is important to understand that although this word will probably come 2nd word in the Latin clause, it must be translated first.

 NISI

IF...NOT, UNLESS ? this is the negative of 'si': the Romans never said 'si...non...'
SIMULAC AS SOON AS simultaneous related to 'simul': so it really means 'at the same time as...'

 

 

VERBS

       1st Conjugation: -O -ARE -AVI -ATUM  

LATIN

ENGLISH

DERIVATIVE

VDB PROMPT

CELO

HIDE

conceal

we've had people hiding in the cellar (which is a related derivative); or not knowing where to hide their **cello**...(which isn't!) 

COGITO

THINK, CONSIDER cogitate old **codgers** sitting around in their basket-chairs just thinking; Descartes' famous maxim: cogito ergo sum 
ORO BEG orator orators standing on the platform begging their audience to listen to their arguments
POENAS DO dare dedi datum BE PUNISHED, PAY THE PENALTY penalty In Latin, to 'give punishment' rather meant the opposite to what one would assume
PUTO THINK computer a computer is a device that does your thinking with you (com = cum); who said 'for you'?
SPERO HOPE desperate the verb associated with 'spes': if you are de-sperate your hope has gone down from you; also Fr. 'esperer'
VERBS 2nd Conjugation: principal parts as shown
APPAREO -ere apparui apparitum APPEAR apparition almost the same word
FAVEO -ere favi fautum FAVOUR, SUPPORT favourite again, close enough to English not to be a big problem; it puts its object in the Dative: 'give support to...'
IACEO -ere iacui LIE DOWN adjacent it needs great care not to mistake this for 'iacio'; look for the letter '-i-' at the end of the stem. If it's there, it's from IACIO (because when you throw things, you need to keep your 'eye' in!) Obviously the best way is to go by the meaning in the sentence - only one of them is likely to fit in sensibly!
VERBS 3rd Conjugation: various principal parts
CADO -ere cecidi casum FALL occasion, cascade something falls on a particular occasion; a cascade is a water-fall; the golfer's **caddy** dropped all his clubs....
    INCENDO -ere incendi incensum SET ON FIRE, BURN incendiary, incense hence also the meaning to be 'incensed' with anger. The root verb 'cando' gives the derivative candle
OPPRIMO -ere oppressi oppressum CRUSH, OVERWHELM oppress, pressure there is again a root verb 'premo' with similar pr. parts which gives the 'press' derivatives more directly
REDDO -ere reddidi redditum GIVE BACK, RETURN render, rendition literally 're-' + 'do'. All compounds of 'do' use the 3rd conjugation principal parts '-do -dere -didi -ditum': you have seen plenty already (e.g. trado). Beware of muddling this one with 'redeo' - especially as they can both have the meaning 'return'!
RUMPO -ere rupi ruptum BURST, BREAK rupture, erupt this wonderful verb scarcely needs prompts to remember - once you've seen it and its derivatives I challenge you to forget it!
TOLLO -ere sustuli sublatum RAISE, REMOVE, LIFT extol some have found the idea of a **toll**-bridge helpful: it has to raise up and remove itself for you to pass; the verb seems to have 'merged' with a now missing similar verb, probably 'subfero' - 'carry from underneath'. It's also a Latin slang word for 'steal' - compare English 'lift'. I have sometimes wondered if fero's own 'tuli' originally had connections with 'tollo' - there is an old form of the perfect: 'tetuli'. Answers on a postcard please (or use the contact form!) 
VERTO -ere verti versum TURN convert, reverse also a connection with vertical: what goes (straight) up, must (turn round and) come down again!
VERBS Mixed Conjugation: various Principal Parts
CONFICIO -ere confeci confectum FINISH, WEAR OUT confectionery originally had the sense of 'bringing things together' so that everything was in place. Hence the old meaning of 'confectionery' - nicely decorated sweetmeats, etc. Nowadays Mr Tesco is less choosy... but you can still say 'I've finished all my sweets!' 
RAPIO -ere rapui raptum SEIZE, GRAB  rape, rapture the equally common compound 'corripio' can suggest **rip**; the other derivatives are fairly obvious
VERBS 4th Conjugation: Principal Parts as given
PERVENIO -ire perveni perventum REACH, ARRIVE AT venture almost the same meaning as 'advenio'; slightly more of the idea 'come through to...'
VERBS irregular conjugation
AUFERO auferre abstuli ablatum TAKE AWAY, REMOVE ablative a compound of  'ab' +'fero'. The idea of the Ablative case ('away from') may help the most.
COEPI coepisse BEGIN incipient deriv. is technically from the equally common (& related) verb 'incipio'. This is a so-called 'defective' verb (not very PC these days!) It has no present stem or tenses formed from it, beginning its conjugation in the Perfect. The idea is possibly something like: as soon as you 'begin' something, you have already begun it
MALO malle malui PREFER ? you know volo & nolo... here's the third verb in the group! It's a (massive) contraction of 'magis volo' - 'want (it) more'. Its similar Present tense formation to the other two gives it a wonderful 2nd pers. sing.: 'mavis'- do you really prefer Mavis?
OFFERO offerre obtuli oblatum OFFER offer, oblation the only real problem with this compound of 'fero' is identifying it in its Perfect and Supine forms.
REFERO referre rettuli relatum BRING BACK, RELATE refer, relate easy connections amongst its derivations and principal parts. Consider too the verb 'transfero' -'I bring across' - can you see where its supine leads you?

 

 

VERBS

       DEPONENT: 1st Conjugation  

LATIN

ENGLISH

DERIVATIVE

VDB PROMPT

CONOR conari conatus sum

TRY

?

if you've scored a try, you might need the balancing 'cone' to help you kick the conversion

HORTOR hortari hortatus sum

ENCOURAGE, URGE cohort, exhortation the general gathered the cohort and encouraged them to fight well; literally 'co-hort': 'encourage together'
MIROR mirari miratus sum WONDER AT, BE AMAZED, ADMIRE miracle, admiration as you admire yourself in your 'mir(r)or', you are amazed at what you see
PRECOR precari precatus sum PRAY deprecate the bad sense of 'de-precate' originates in 'calling prayers/curses down' on something. The evening house-assembly in one well-known public school is called 'preces' - literally 'prayers' 
VERBS DEPONENT: 2nd Conjugation
VIDEOR videri visus sum SEEM, APPEAR  visibly 'video' in the passive (indistinguishable from this) would mean 'I am seen': if you are seen to be something, you seem to be it.
VERBS DEPONENT: 3rd Conjugation
LOQUOR loqui locutus sum SPEAK eloquent, loquacious deriv.'s; beware of confusing this with 'locus'!
PROFICISCOR proficisci profectus sum SET OUT ? often confused with 'progredior': take the first 'different' letter: 'f' comes before 'g': you have to set out before you can go forward
SEQUOR sequi secutus sum FOLLOW sequence, consequences (deriv.'s)
VERBS DEPONENT: Mixed Conjugation
EGREDIOR egredi egressus sum GO OUT, DISEMBARK see 'progredior' compound of the non-existent (!) 'verb' gradior which would have meant basically to 'take a step' This one has the prefix 'e' for 'out'.
INGREDIOR ingredi ingressus sum GO IN, ENTER see 'progredior' same idea, this time with the prefix 'in'
MORIOR mori mortuus sum DIE moribund, mortuary you should already know 'mortuus' used as an adjective; it's really the perfect participle of this verb: morior: I die; mortuus sum: I have died, therefore = I am dead 
PATIOR pati passus sum SUFFER, ALLOW patient (in both senses!), passive do you suffer when you see a passive verb? The derivative 'patient' is excellent to help connect the two apparently different meanings
PROGREDIOR progredi progressus sum GO FORWARD, ADVANCE progressive this is the most useful (and common) of the compounds of 'gradior'. See note on egredior: the 'pro-' prefix as always means 'forward'. See also note on 'proficiscor' for a way not to muddle them up!
REGREDIOR regredi regressus sum GO BACK, RETURN regression all these '-gredior' deponent verbs are very useful, in that they make it possible to express the sense of 'having gone somewhere' - deponent verbs being active in meaning. No other Latin verbs possess active past participles.

 

 

VERBS

       SEMI-DEPONENT2nd Conjugation  

LATIN

ENGLISH

DERIVATIVE

VDB PROMPT

AUDEO audere ausus sum

DARE

audacious

connected with 'audax', and has a similar 'bad' connotation: to be rash - rather too daring. " 'Ow dare 'e do that!" Nobody has ever adequately explained to me the existence of 'semi-deponent' verbs - nor why they seem mostly to be 2nd conjugation!

GAUDEO gaudere gavisus sum

REJOICE, BE PLEASED gaudy, gay connected with the noun 'gaudium'; probably the verb was originally spelled 'gavideo' and may even have had some connection with 'video': seeing with joy? This '-vi-' contraction into '-u-' is also evident in 'navigo/nauta (navita)' 
SOLEO solere solitus sum BE ACCUSTOMED, BE USED (TO) ? sad to have to end on such an awkward one, one of the 'sole' vocab words with no really helpful prompts - not what we're accustomed to!