This page deals with some of the less complicated points of syntax that you need to know.

Click on the links below to take you to the particular constructions you want to practise. 

 Time Expressions

Motion & Position

Adverbs (& Comparison)

Relative Clauses


 

 

 

 


 

TIME  EXPRESSIONS

 

1.  HLACC   -  Time  "How Long"

                 English  (e.g.)       FOR   five  hours

                                                                              FOR  ten  years

                                               FOR  many  days

                                               FOR  one  night

     Latin  just  uses  the  ACCUSATIVE  case (without a preposition):

                                        QUINQUE  HORAS

                                                DECEM  ANNOS

                                                MULTOS  DIES

                                                UNAM   NOCTEM

N.B.  Cardinal numbers: only UNUS, DUO, TRES  change their endings.

 

2.  WABL    -   Time  "When" (or "Within..")

                 English (e.g.)          IN   the  tenth  year

                                          ON  the  third day

                                          AT  the  eighth  hour

                                          (With)IN  a  few  days

         Latin  just  uses  the  ABLATIVE  case  (without a preposition):

                                          DECIMO  ANNO

                                          TERTIO  DIE

                                          OCTAVA  HORA

                                          PAUCIS  DIEBUS

 

  N.B.   Ordinal numbers ALL change their endings:  usually to '-O' or '-A'.

 

Possibly the hardest thing about translating these phrases is actually spotting them in the first place! There are certain 'give-aways' to watch out for:

           NUMBERS (both kinds) are often involved
           NOUNS to do with TIME  (annus, dies, hora, nox)

   ….and when you get both together it is very likely to be an example of
                      
HLACC or WABL.

When you do spot them, the crucial thing is to notice the CASE of the words:

     If they are ACC, it is 'How Long', and you must use the English word -
                           "FOR…"

     If they are ABL, it is 'When/Within', and you have the choice of -
                          "IN", "ON" or "AT"
.

       e.g.  ULIXES MULTOS ANNOS PER MARE ERRABAT.
              Odysseus wandered over the sea FOR many years.

              GRAECI TROIAM DECIMO ANNO BELLI CEPERUNT.
              The Greeks captured Troy
IN the tenth year of the war.

        
    

 

 

 


 

                                       

 

MOTION   and  Position

    

Certain words in Latin follow slightly different patterns from the
   usual way of expressing these ideas. This occurs in particular
with NAMES of TOWNS and a couple of other individual words:
 especially DOMUS (which here uses 2nd decl endings),and also the

word RUS, RURIS (3,n) which is technically no longer needed
for GCSE - but is worth knowing anyway, as the root of the
English word 'rural'. 


 
MOTION 
     

  1.    'TOWARDS':

             Usual Latin:  AD or IN + ACC case:  

                         e.g.   AD URBEM  -  to(wards) the city
                              IN AGROS  -  into the fields

       Irregulars:   These also use the ACC, but without any prepositions:
                                             
                    
 e.g.    ROMAM   -  to  Rome
                               POMPEIOS  -  to  Pompeii  (2nd decl plur)

                                  DOMUM  - home(wards)

                                  RUS - to the country
                                                    

    2.  'AWAY FROM':

               Usual Latin:  E(X) or A(B) + ABL case:

                         e.g.  EX OPPIDO  -  out of the town
                             A MONTIBUS  -  away from the mountains

       Irregulars:   These also use the ABL, but without any prepositions:
                                              
                   
e.g.  TROIA (abl ending)  -  from Troy
                         ATHENIS (abl pl of 'Athenae')  -  from Athens
                          DOMO  -  from home



  
Position  ("IN" or "AT")


             Usual Latin:   IN + ABL case: 

                     e.g.  IN  FORO  -  in the market-place 

            Irregulars:   These use the so-called "LOCATIVE" case:

With words whose names are 1st or 2nd decl. singular, the ending is the he
same as the GEN SING
With words whose names are 3rd decl, OR  plural, the ending is the
same as the ABL case.

             e.g.  ROMAE  -  IN  or AT  Rome 
                    LONDINII  -  IN  London  ('Londinium' is 2nd n.)

                    DOMI  - AT home

      BUT:        RURE/RURI  -  IN the country
                    KARTH
AGINE  -  IN  Carthage (a 3rd decl name)

                    POMPEIIS   -  IN  Pompeii  (plural)

      NOTICE THAT 3rd decl or plural names will have the same endings

  for 'MOTION - AWAY FROM' as for 'POSITION'...! The VERB

  MEANING in the sentence will usually make it clear which is which:

 

   e.g.  ATHENIS  DISCESSIMUS  -  We went away FROM Athens
             ATHEN
IS  MANEMUS  -  We are staying IN Athens

 

 

 

 


 

  

Adverbs (including Comparison)

            There are some regular ways of forming adverbs from adjectives (as English often adds "--LY"). It usually depends on which declension endings the adjective uses (and in some cases its stem).

A)  1st/2nd decl. adjectives                                        

  The regular way of formation (including '-ER' types) is to take the STEM
                                                          and add "—E"
.

              e.g.  IRATUS   -   IRATE  (angrily)
                      MISER     -   MISER
E  (miserably)
                      PULCHER  -  PULCHR
E  (beautifully)
     
Some common irregulars:
                      PRIMUS  -  PRIMO or PRIMUM (firstly, at first)
                      TUTUS  -  TUTO  (safely)
      Beware (as usual) of the Famous Five (see below)!


B) 
3rd declension adjectives

  The regular formation is to take the STEM and add "—ITER"

               e.g.  FORTIS   -   FORTITER  (bravely)
                       CELER  -  CELER
ITER  (quickly)
                       FELIX  -  FELIC
ITER  (luckily - also the Latin for 'Good luck!')
        Irregulars:
                       FACILIS  -  FACIL
E  (easily)
                       AUDAX  -  AUDAC
TER  (boldly)
                       Adj's in -NS:  change -NS to -
NTER: e.g. SAPIENTER (wisely)


COMPARATIVE & SUPERLATIVE

        This is reasonably straightforward. Firstly take the Comparative or Superlative of the original adjective. Then…

         For COMPARATIVE:  change -IOR to -IUS  (more ------ly)

        For SUPERLATIVE: follow the normal way of changing a 1st/2nd decl. adjective into an adverb, i.e. change -US to -E (very -----ly).

 

e.g.'s:

ADJECTIVE           ADVERB           COMPARATIVE     SUPERLATIVE

 STULTUS               STULTE              STULTIUS              STULTISSIME
    (foolish)               (foolishly)           (more foolishly)      (very foolishly)
 AUDAX                 AUDAC
TER       AUDACIUS            AUDACISSIME
 GRAVIS                GRAV
ITER          GRAVIUS                GRAVISSIME
 DILIGENS          DILIGE
NTER     DILIGENTIUS     DILIGENTISSIME
 CELER                    CELER
ITER          CELERIUS               CELERRIME
 FACILIS                     FACIL
E             FACILIUS                 FACILLIME



 C)   The FAMOUS FIVE

       It will come as no surprise that these tend to form their adverbs irregularly! Some of their Comparative/Superlatives are however in fact regular…

            Irregularities are printed below in RED.

 

 ADJECTIVE           ADVERB           COMPARATIVE         SUPERLATIVE

  BONUS                      BENE                   MELIUS                       OPTIME

  MALUS                      MALE                  PEIUS                          PESSIME

  MAGNUS          MAGNOPERE         MAGIS                        MAXIME

  PARVUS              PAULLUM              MINUS                        MINIME

  MULTUS             MULTUM                 PLUS                        PLURIMUM                         
                                        (or MULTO)

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

RELATIVE PRONOUN (QUI QUAE QUOD)



 

 

MASC

FEM

NEUT

NOM

QUI

QUAE

QUOD

ACC

QUEM

QUAM

QUOD

GEN

CUIUS

CUIUS

CUIUS

DAT

CUI

CUI

CUI

ABL

QUO

QUA

QUO

 

 

 

 

NOM

QUI

QUAE

QUAE

ACC

QUOS

QUAS

QUAE

GEN

QUORUM

QUARUM

QUORUM

DAT

QUIBUS or QUIS (all genders)

ABL

QUIBUS or QUIS (all genders)


 
Chart of English Meanings:
 

 

PEOPLE

THINGS

NOM

WHO

WHICH

(before an English verb)

ACC

WHOM

WHICH

(before anything else)

GEN

WHOSE, OF WHOM

WHOSE, OF WHICH

DAT

TO/FOR WHOM

TO/FOR WHICH

ABL

BY (etc.) WHOM

BY (etc.) WHICH

 

 

                                        It often helps to imagine that the QUI clause is in BRACKETS inside the main part of the sentence. This prevents you splitting the sentence into clauses incorrectly.

                   Place these brackets BEFORE the part of "QUI" (or a preposition followed by 'qui'), and AFTER the first indicative verb that follows:

                e.g.       IUVENIS  (CUI  PECUNIAM  DEDI) E FORO RUIT

                   Then translate the CASE of "QUI" carefully by the meanings chart above: it will refer to the NOUN IN FRONT OF IT (its "ANTECEDENT"). This will show you whether it is a PERSON or a THING!

                  e.g.    The YOUNG  MAN (TO WHOM (dat) I gave the money) rushed out of the forum.

 

     More examples: 
           
MONTES 
(PER  QUOS  ITER  FACIEBAT)  ERANT  ALTISSIMI

                       THE MOUNTAINS (THROUGH WHICH he was travelling) were very high


         MILITES  FEMINAS 
(QUAE  IN  VIA  CLAMABANT) AUDIVERUNT

                     The soldiers heard THE WOMEN (WHO were shouting in the street)


       You will obviously then want to remove the brackets again when you write the sentence properly.

 

       SOME FOR YOU TO TRY! 

               Run your cursor over the 'Answer' lines to see if you are right: the first line shows the sentence with the correct words bracketed.

 

     1.    PUERI  SENEM  QUI  IN  FORO  ERRABAT  AD  VILLAM  DUXERUNT

With brackets:  PUERI  SENEM  (QUI  IN  FORO  ERRABAT)  AD  VILLAM  DUXERUNT
Answer:  The boys took the old man who was wandering in the forum to his villa  
 

 

 

     2.   SERVE,  FER  GLADIUM  QUO  HUNC  LEONEM  NECARE  POTERO!

With brackets:  SERVE,  FER  GLADIUM  (QUO  HUNC  LEONEM  NECARE  POTERO)!
Answer:   Slave, bring a sword with which I'll be able to kill this lion!
 

 

     3.  VIR  CUIUS  FILIAM  HERI  VIDISTI  EST  SENATOR  CLARUS

With brackets:   VIR  (CUIUS  FILIAM  HERI  VIDISTI)  EST  SENATOR  CLARUS
Answer:   The man whose daughter you saw yesterday is a famous senator

 

     4.  ULIXES  DONA  INTER  QUAE  GLADIUS  ERAT  MULIERIBUS  OSTENDIT

With brackets:  ULIXES  DONA ( INTER  QUAE  GLADIUS  ERAT)  MULIERIBUS  OSTENDIT
Answer:  Odysseus showed the women some gifts, amongst which was a sword